Alcohol is also known by its chemical name ethanol. It’s a psychoactive substance, and the active ingredient in drinks such as beer, wine and distilled spirits (hard liquor). Alcohol is made by putting grains, fruits or vegetables through a process called fermentation. Wine and cider are made by fermenting fruit. Beer and spirits are made by fermenting grains such as rye or barley. The strength of the alcohol is governed by the length of fermentation. So the longer the steep, the stronger the drink.Alcohol can be sipped, shot, belted and swigged. It can come in pints, fifths, tall boys, high balls, handles and 40s. And it can be crafted, blended, mixed, strained, distilled, shaken and stirred. Alcohol has been coursing through our bloodstream since the Stone Age. And it shows absolutely no signs of abating any time soon. Sometimes drinkers dissolve a little cocaine into their cocktail. That’s called Baltic Tea.
LONG TERM EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL
Over time, excessive alcohol use can lead to the development of chronic diseases and other serious problems including:…………….
- High blood pressure, heart disease, stroke, liver disease, and digestive problems.
- Cancer of the breast, mouth, throat, esophagus, liver, and colon.
- Learning and memory problems, including dementia and poor school performance.
- Mental health problems, including depression and anxiety.
- Social problems, including lost productivity, family problems, and unemployment.
- Alcohol dependence, or alcoholism.
Recovery Boot Camp employs an abstinence-based, dual-diagnostic Medication-Assisted Treatment program called Basic Training. Combined with comprehensive behavioral therapy, extensive wellness and an intensive 12 Step program, this allows us to tailor the best possible treatment program for each individual client.Behavioral therapies for alcohol addiction include cognitive-behavioral therapy and contingency management. Cognitive-behavioral therapy helps modify the patient’s substance-use expectations and behaviors. It also helps effectively manage triggers and stress. Contingency management provides motivational incentives for staying alcohol- and drug-free. These behavioral treatment approaches are especially effective when used along with a solid 12 Step regimen.
HISTORY OF ALCOHOL
- 10,000 B.C. Discovery of late Stone Age jugs in Dikili Tash (Macedonia) suggest that intentionally fermented beverages existed at least as early as the Neolithic period.
- 8000 B.C. In Persia and the Middle East, a fermented drink is produced from honey and wild yeasts.
- 6000 B.C. Viticulture, the cultivation of grapevines for making wine, is believed to originate in the mountains between the Black and Caspian Seas.
- 4000 B.C. Wine making is established in Mesopotamia (present day Iraq).
- 3000 B.C. Both beer and wine are produced in ancient Egypt; wine production and trade become an important part of Mediterranean commerce.
- 800 B.C. Barley and rice beer are produced in India.
- 625: Islamic Prophet Muhammad orders his followers to abstain from alcohol.
- 1100: A medical school in Italy documents alcohol distillation. The product is named “spirits.”
- 1516: Germany passes a beer purity law, making it illegal to make beer with anything but barley, hops and pure water.
- 1789: The first American temperance society is formed in Litchfield, Connecticut, with the goal of reducing alcohol consumption. Similar societies soon follow in other states.
- 1791: The act of 1791 (popularly called the “Whiskey Tax”) enacts a tax on both publicly and privately distilled whiskey in the United States.
- 1793: During the whiskey rebellion of Pennsylvania, government troops arrest a handful of distillery leaders who refused to pay taxes on their products.
- 1802: The Whiskey Tax is repealed.
- 1814-1817: A new alcohol tax is temporarily imposed in the United States to help pay for the War of 1812.
- 1850s: New York bartenders invent the cocktail.
- 1860: In the United States 1,138 legal alcohol distilleries are operating and producing 88 million gallons of liquor per year.
- 1862: Abraham Lincoln imposes a new tax on liquor to help pay the bills from the Civil War.
- 1884: Laws are enacted to make anti-alcohol teaching compulsory in public schools in New York State. The following year similar laws are passed in Pennsylvania, with other states soon following.
- 1906: The Pure Food and Drug Act is passed, regulating the labeling of products containing alcohol.
- 1910: New York introduces the first drunk-driving laws.
- 1920: The passage of the 18th Amendment (prohibition) and the Volstead Act effectively outlaw the production, sale, and transportation of alcoholic beverages in the United States. (Alcohol was also illegal in Finland from 1919 to 1932 and in various Canadian provinces at various times between 1900 and 1948.)
- 1920-1933: The illicit alcohol trade booms in the United States.
- 1933:Prohibition is repealed; most states restrict youth under 18 (the minimum voting age) from possessing or consuming alcoholic beverages.
- 1935: Alcoholics Anonymous is established; the American Medical Association passes a resolution declaring that alcoholics are valid patients.
- 1944: The U.S. Public Health Service labels alcoholism the fourth-largest health problem.
- 1964: The Grand Rapids Study shows that the risk of an automobile crash increases as more alcohol is consumed.
- 1970-1975: The minimum drinking age is lowered in 29 states from 21 to 18, 19 or 20 following the enactment of the 26th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which lowers the legal voting age to 18.
- 1980: Mothers Against Drunk Driving is established with the goal of reducing alcohol-related highway fatalities.
- 2000: A new federal law requires states to pass legislation making it a crime to drive with blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at or above .08 percent.
In the 7th Century, the Prophet Muhammad banned alcohol for all Muslims, effectively creating the first prohibition. This would remain the only large-scale edict concerning alcohol until the United States created the Wartime Prohibition Act in 1918. The Eighteenth Amendment would be ratified in 1919, as would the attendant Volstead Act (aka the National Prohibition Act), establishing the legal definition of intoxicating liquors as well as penalties for producing them, despite President Woodrow Wilson’s veto.Early U.S. moderation efforts can be traced back to American Independence. And temperance movements began springing up around the country as early as 1789. The American Temperance Society itself was founded in 1826, and by 1835 it had grown to 1.5 million members. Maine entirely banned the manufacture and sale of alcohol in 1851. Twelve other states would follow suit. But people lost the taste for prohibition during The Civil War. In 1869, the Prohibition Party revived the dry crusade. And in 1873, the Women’s Christian Temperance Movement actively used temperance as a way of entering politics, despite the fact that women still weren’t permitted to vote. Methodists, Northern Baptists, Southern Baptists, New School Presbyterians, Disciples of Christ, Congregationalists, Quakers, and Scandinavian Lutherans, as well as the Catholic Total Abstinence Union of America and the Latter-day Saints all actively advocated for Prohibition through the early 20th century. The religionists claimed that it was a moral cause.